INDIA: LANGUAGES

 

The Census of 1961 recognized 1651 languages as "mother tongues" in India. Hindi and English are considered to be official languages. When India became independent in 1947, it was comprised of nearly 25 states, divided according to the languages spoken by the majority in each region. In the 1960s, a "three-language formula" was adopted, where students would learn Hindi, English, and one other local language.

The 8th Schedule of the Constitution of India recognized 22 languages. They are:

  1. Assamese.
  2. Bengali.
  3. Bodo.
  4. Dogri.
  5. Gujarati.
  6. Hindi.
  7. Kannada.
  8. Kashmiri.
  9. Konkani.
  10. Maithili.
  11. Malayalam.
  12. Manipuri.
  13. Marathi.
  14. Nepali.
  15. Odia
  16. Punjabi.
  17. Sanskrit.
  18. Santhali.
  19. Sindhi.
  20. Tamil.
  21. Telugu.
  22. Urdu